FIELD MANUAL HEADQUARTERS
NO. 22-5 DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
Washington, DC, 31 July 1990
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CHAPTER 1. Concept of Leadership
2. Foundations of Army Leadership Doctrine
3. Leadership in Action
4. What a Leader Must Be
5. What a Leader Must Know
6. What a Leader Must Do
7. The Payoff
8. Stress in Combat
9. The Environment of Combat
A. Leadership Competencies
B. Leadership Styles
C. Assuming a Leadership Position
D. Officer and Noncommissioned Officer Relationships
E. Development Leadership Assessment
A Trained and Ready Army has as its foundation, competent and confident leaders. We develop such leaders through a dynamic process consisting of three equally important pillars: institutional training, operational assignments, and self-development. This approach is designed to provide the education, training, and experience that enable leaders to develop the necessary skills, knowledge, and attitudes.
FM 22-100, Military Leadership, is the Army's basic manual on leadership. It has two purposes: to provide an overview of Army leadership doctrine, including the principles for applying leadership theory at all organizational levels to meet operational requirements; and to prescribe the leadership necessary to be effective in peace and in war.
While this manual applies to all Army leaders, its principal focus is on company grade officers, warrant officers, and noncommissioned officers, the junior leaders of soldiers at battalion-squadron level and below. FM 22-100 incorporates the professional military values, the bedrock of our service, that all Army leaders must internalize in the earliest years of their careers.
Army leaders must learn to fulfill expectations of all soldiers including other leaders. FM 22-100 addresses fundamental expectations:
•Demonstrate tactical and technical competence.
Know your business. Soldiers expect their leaders to be tactically and technically competent. Soldiers want to follow those leaders who are confident of their own abilities. To be confident a leader must first be competent. Trust between soldiers and their leaders is based on the secure knowledge that the leader is competent.
In training, leaders must move beyond managing programs or directing the execution of operations. Our leaders must take the time to share with subordinates the benefit of experience and expertise.
•Be a good listener.
We must listen with equal attention to our superiors and our subordinates. As leaders we can help solve any problem for a soldier or a unit. However, we can only do so if we know about it. We won't know about it if we don't listen.
•Treat soldiers with dignity and respect.
Leaders must show genuine concern and compassion for the soldiers they lead. It is essential that leaders remain sensitive to family members and include them in unit activities to the extent possible. Remember, respect is a two-way street; a leader will be accorded the same level of respect that he or she shows for others.
Leaders must demonstrate mastery of fundamental soldiering skills such as marksmanship, first aid, and navigation, as well as the requisite skills for their particular specialty, and be able to teach them to their soldiers.
•Set the example.
Leaders abide consistently with the highest values of the military profession and its institutions. They encourage within their soldiers a commitment to the same values. Leaders take pride in selflessly dedicating their service to ensure mission accomplishment. They are aware that they are always on parade--24 hours a day, seven days a week--and that all their actions set personal and professional examples for subordinates to emulate.
•Set and enforce standards.
A leader must know, and always enforce, established Army standards. Perhaps the most fundamental standard which must be maintained is discipline. Our soldiers must promptly and effectively perform their duty in response to orders, or in the absence of orders take the correct action.
The fundamental mission of our Army is to deter war and win in combat. The American people expect that officers and noncommissioned officers at all levels will lead, train, motivate, and inspire their soldiers. Our soldiers and units perform difficult tasks, often under dangerous, stressful circumstances. To achieve excellence in these tasks, leaders must explain the importance of the mission, articulate priorities, and focus soldier and unit efforts to perform in an efficient and disciplined manner. Well led, properly trained, motivated, and inspired soldiers will accomplish any mission.
Leaders in our Army have a challenge. They must take care of soldiers' needs; develop them into cohesive teams; train them under tough, realistic conditions to demanding standards; assess their performance; assist them with their personal and professional growth; and reward them for their successes. To meet that challenge our leaders must be competent, and confident in their ability to lead. Such leaders will remain essential to our Trained and Ready Army, today and tomorrow.
The changing face of war poses special challenges for our Army. Because of the increasing complexity of the world environment, we must prepare to respond across the entire spectrum of conflict. Just as we have changed our doctrine, weapons, and force structure, so have our potential enemies. These changes have dramatically altered the characteristics and demands of modern combat. More than ever, we need competent and confident soldiers, leaders, and units to meet these challenges.
We must work to strengthen our ability to employ new equipment and to execute our operations doctrine. We must also focus on developing leaders at all levels who understand the human dimension of war and are able to go from theory to practice where its application is required.
Understanding the human element will help us win in situations where we may be outnumbered or face an enemy with excellent weapons and equipment. This understanding is equally important in low-intensity conflicts where we expect to have better equipment than the enemy has, but face a struggle of competing principles and ideologies. In either environment, we can only succeed if we have better-prepared leaders, soldiers, and units than the enemy does.
Examining situations where soldiers are likely to be called on to fight or to deter aggression helps identify future leadership challenges and focus on the kind of leaders needed. The worst-case war may be a "come as you are war," fought with little time for buildup or preparation. Because of the speed and devastation of modern warfare, battle success may well depend on the effectiveness of existing small units during the first weeks of battle.
Across the entire spectrum of conflict, independent actions and operations within the commander's intent will be necessary. In limited and general war, the turbulent intermixing of opposing units may blur distinctions between rear and forward areas. Combat will occur throughout the entire length and breadth of the battlefield. In the midst of this fast-paced battlefield, leaders must take the initiative, make rapid decisions, and motivate their soldiers. They must effectively maneuver their units, apply firepower, and protect and sustain their force.
In low-intensity conflicts, leaders will also be under great stress and have to display as much or more discipline than in conventional war. Short periods of intense fighting may interrupt long periods of relative inaction. The signs soldiers are trained to watch for may not help them distinguish friend from enemy. To achieve operational success, leaders may have to restrict the amount of combat power used. These restrictions can frustrate soldiers and leaders of small units. The stress of this environment, coupled with a possible lack of popular support on the home front, will require leaders to motivate their soldiers without many of the traditional supports accorded soldiers in battle.
The nature of future operations places significant demands on leaders. Specifically, the Army needs leaders who-
•Understand the human dimension of operations.
•Provide purpose, direction, and motivation to their units.
•Are technically and tactically competent.
•Are willing to exploit opportunities and take well-calculated risks within the commander's intent.
•Have an aggressive will to fight and win.
•Build cohesive teams.
•Communicate effectively, both orally and in writing.
•Are committed to the professional Army ethic.
The Army's leadership doctrine lays out principles that, when followed, provide the tools to execute our operations doctrine. It suggests that leaders must satisfy four leadership requirements:
•Lead in peace to be prepared for war.
•Develop individual leaders.
•Develop leadership teams.
Lead in Peace to be Prepared for War
The Army needs leaders who sustain their ability to look beyond peacetime concerns and who can execute their wartime missions even after long periods of peace. Difficulties in maintaining this focus in peace arise because responsibilities and priorities may blur. Leaders must guard against the natural peacetime tendency to use "efficient" centralized methods of training and "zero defects" approaches to day-to-day operations. Administrative activities are important, but they must not take priority over realistic combat training.
The key to maintaining a proper perspective is the ability to look beyond garrison concerns. Leaders must develop units through their wartime focus on all activities. They must recognize that the fast pace of combat allows little time to learn new skills, so they must develop units that can respond rapidly to changing situations. The way leaders train their soldiers and organizations in peace is the way these organizations will fight in war.
Develop Individual Leaders
The Army has made a total commitment to develop leaders by providing the skills, knowledge, and attitude necessary for them to exhibit the leadership characteristics and traits discussed in this manual. This objective is accomplished through a dynamic leader development system consisting of three equally important pillars:
•Schools. These institutions provide the formal education and training that all soldiers receive on a progressive and sequential basis to prepare them for positions of greater responsibility. The NCOES is a good example.
•Experience. Operational experience through duty assignments provides leaders the opportunity to use and build upon what was learned through the process of formal education.
•Self-development. Individual initiative and self-improvement are keys to training and developing every leader. The formal education system has limits to what it can accomplish; the leader can and must continue to expand that knowledge base whether through Army correspondence courses, civilian education, reading programs, or any of a number of self-study programs.
•As a leader you have a responsibility to assist your subordinates in implementing all three of these leader development pillars: you must help obtain school quotas for deserving soldiers and then ensure prerequisites are met before attendance; you must have a plan to develop your subordinates while in your unit; and you must encourage the self-discipline required in your soldiers to want to learn more about their profession.
At all levels, the next senior leader has the responsibility to create leader development programs that develop professional officer and NCO leaders. Leaders train their subordinates to plan training carefully, execute it aggressively, and assess short-term achievements in terms of desired long-term results. Effective leader development programs will continuously influence the Army as younger leaders progress to higher levels of responsibility.
The purpose of leader development is to develop leaders capable of maintaining a trained and ready Army in peacetime to deter war, to fight and control wars that do start, and to terminate wars on terms favorable to US and allied interests.
The ethical development of self and subordinates is a key component of leader development. To succeed in upholding their oath of office, leaders must make a personal commitment to the professional Army ethic and strive to develop this commitment throughout the force.
Every leader must be a role model actively working to make his subordinates sensitive to ethical matters. Leaders must not tolerate unethical behavior by subordinates, peers, or superiors.
We must develop and nurture trust that encourages leaders to delegate and empower subordinates. Subordinate leaders may then begin to make the decisions that are properly theirs to make and to develop the judgment and thinking skills they will need in battle. This approach requires leaders to recognize that subordinates learn by doing and gives subordinates a chance to try their own solutions.
The purpose of leader development is to develop leaders capable of maintaining a
trained and ready army in peacetime to deter war.
Develop Leadership Teams
The ability to develop a leadership team is essential to success in war. While we have traditionally viewed leadership as an individual influence effort, today's operations doctrine demands we also view it in terms of leadership teams. A leadership team consists of a leader and those subordinates necessary to plan and execute operations. For example, a platoon leader's leadership team usually consists of a platoon sergeant and the squad leaders. Developing leadership teams is even more important in larger, more complex organizations. Leaders must develop a team that anticipates requirements and exercises initiative within the commander's intent. Units may fail because of a single leader's ineptness, but units succeed in combat because of the collective efforts of leadership teams. An effective leadership team will provide continuity in combat that is tied to a commander's intent instead of to a specific leader or person. Responsive teams react quickly because of their common understanding of mission requirements.
Decentralization is a peacetime objective because you want to develop leaders capable of making tough decisions in a combat situation. To decentralize requires a more senior leader to release authority for execution at a lower level. Leaders must create a leadership climate where decision making is decentralized to the appropriate level. This climate is necessary for subordinate leaders to learn and then to demonstrate the mental flexibility, initiative, innovation, and risk-taking skills that our training and operations doctrine require.
Army doctrine recognizes the high-quality soldier of today. The leader is responsible to develop each soldier's potential and to give competent subordinates authority and responsibility. Although leaders should not do most things themselves if subordinates can and should do them, they must be capable of performing those tasks. This requires the judicious interplay of centralization and decentralization. Leaders must tailor decentralization to the ability, training, and experience of subordinates who may need to be coached and supported as well as empowered. Although decentralization must allow for subordinate initiative in matters of judgment within the commander's intent, leaders must hold subordinates strictly accountable for their actions at their level of responsibility. When honest mistakes are made, leaders must be willing to coach, encourage, and train subordinates. All must realize that decentralization is not a cure-all and successful implementation requires patience. The key is to develop subordinates' ability to solve problems. The leader must establish standards, decide what needs to be done, and then let competent subordinates decide how to accomplish the mission.
KEY ELEMENTS OF OUR LEADERSHIP DOCTRINE
The study of the skills, knowledge, and attitudes of effective leaders of the past has identified certain leadership factors, principles, and competencies they have mastered. These are the key elements of our leadership doctrine and provide a framework at all levels for developing self, subordinates, and units. The leadership factors and principles are discussed in Chapter 2; the competencies are discussed in Appendix A.
LEVELS OF LEADERSHIP
There is general agreement that leaders lead in different ways at different organizational levels. Junior-level leaders accomplish missions and build teams primarily by using the direct face-to-face leadership mode. In larger organizations, the scope of missions broadens and leading is more complex. Senior-level leaders and commanders provide vision, influence indirectly through layers of large units, build organizations, and create conditions that enable junior-level leaders to accomplish tasks and missions.
Two modes of leadership cut across all levels--direct and indirect. All leaders use both modes, but the following diagram shows how the proportion of influence shifts from predominantly the direct mode at junior levels to predominantly the indirect mode at senior levels. Do not try to use this diagram to put yourself or others in a particular category. Its value is only to show how the mix of the two leadership modes can vary at different levels. This manual focuses mainly on the direct leadership mode.